Messenger Scientific research can change our lives for the better, but it also presents risks — either through deliberate misuse or accident. For the last decade, scholars, scientists and government officials have worked to figure out regulations that would maximize the benefits of the life sciences while avoiding unnecessary risks. As a reflection of how pressing this question is, on Jan.
Chemotherapy During World War II, naval personnel who were exposed to mustard gas during military action were found to have toxic changes in the bone marrow cells that develop into blood cells.
During that same period, the US Army was studying a number of chemicals related to mustard gas to develop more effective agents for war and also develop protective measures.
In the course of that work, a compound called nitrogen mustard was studied and found to work against a cancer of the lymph nodes called lymphoma. This agent served as the model for a long series of similar but more effective agents called alkylating agents that killed rapidly growing cancer cells by damaging their DNA.
Not long after the discovery of nitrogen mustard, Sidney Farber of Boston demonstrated that aminopterin, a compound related to the vitamin folic acid, produced remissions in children with acute leukemia.
Aminopterin blocked a critical chemical reaction needed for DNA replication. That drug was the predecessor of methotrexate, a cancer treatment drug used commonly today. Since then, other researchers discovered drugs that block different functions in cell growth and replication. The era of chemotherapy had begun.
Metastatic cancer was first cured in when methotrexate was used to treat a rare tumor called choriocarcinoma.
Over the years, chemotherapy drugs chemo have successfully treated many people with cancer. Long-term remissions and even cures of many patients with Hodgkin disease and childhood ALL acute lymphoblastic leukemia treated with chemo were first reported during the s.
Cures of testicular cancer were seen during the next decade. Many other cancers can be controlled with chemo for long periods of time, even if they are not cured. Today, several approaches are available to improve the activity and reduce the side effects of chemo. Later, radiation was used after surgery to control small tumor growths that were not surgically removed.
Finally, chemotherapy was added to destroy small tumor growths that had spread beyond the reach of the surgeon and radiotherapist.
Chemo used after surgery to destroy any remaining cancer cells in the body is called adjuvant therapy. Adjuvant therapy was tested first in breast cancer and found to be effective. It was later used in colon cancertesticular cancer, and others.
A major discovery was the advantage of using multiple chemotherapy drugs known as combination chemotherapy over single agents. Some types of very fast-growing leukemia and lymphoma tumors involving the cells of the bone marrow and lymph nodes, respectively responded very well to combination chemo, and clinical trials led to gradual improvement of the drug combinations used.
Many of these tumors can be cured today by appropriate combination chemotherapy. The approach to patient treatment has become more scientific with the introduction of clinical trials on a wide basis throughout the world. Clinical trials compare new treatments to standard treatments and contribute to a better understanding of treatment benefits and risks.
They are used to test theories about cancer learned in the basic science laboratory and also test ideas drawn from the clinical observations on cancer patients.
They are necessary for continued progress.The use of Chlorine gas led chemists to later develop phosgene and mustard gas, for example.
Why the Tiny Weight of Empty Space Is Such a Huge Mystery Posted on Sep 05, ; Matter. The military on both the Allies and the Axis Powers developed and used mustard gas in World War I. After WWI was over a treaty was signed banning the use of chemical warfare, but countries could still stockpile them.
This technology in not used today due to the treaty. Mustard gas was used to help drive the enemy out of trenches. Jun 12, · During World War II, naval personnel who were exposed to mustard gas during military action were found to have toxic changes in the bone marrow cells that develop into blood cells.
During that same period, the US Army was studying a number of chemicals related to mustard gas to develop more effective agents for war and also develop protective measures. After some limited successes against unprepared opponents, the use of chemical gas had very little tactical benefit; the recognition of this limited utility is that after widespread use in Jun 22, · All of the World War II experiments with mustard gas were done in secret and weren't recorded on the subjects' official military records.
Most do not have proof of what they went through. They received no follow-up health care or monitoring of any kind. (NaturalNews) Most of the packaged, processed foods sold at the grocery store are sheer garbage, loaded with HFCS, MSG, aspartame and GMOs.
There are some striking exceptions to this rule, however, and today I want to bring your attention to mustard.